Some email service providers, including the one I use (1and1.com), have recently clamped down on spam by refusing email with an invalid sender domain in the header or the from-address. While I'm glad to see less garbage in my inbox, I had to dive into the Linux / sendmail configuration rabbit hole to get simple notification emails to show up again. The issue is that only the actual registered domain name is likely to be considered valid by these clamped-down email recipients' hosts. In other words, an email from email@example.com will be refused, but firstname.lastname@example.org would work just fine.
So, after digging through web search results and documentation for a while, I found that sendmail (the service on Linux/Unix/*nix that forwards email messages) can be configured to "masquerade" local email addresses so that they appear to be sent from the base registered domain. So, according to the documentation at http://www.sendmail.org/m4/masquerading.html I set the following configuration options in /etc/mail/sendmail.mc
Then, a few commands to activate the configuration...
m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.mc > /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
service sendmail restart
Of course this all has to be done as the root account since the modifications are being made to system configuration files. So, the next step was to send a simple test email to see if it worked, but here's where I stepped on one of those semi-hidden (i.e. inconspicuously documented) Linux software configuration land mines. Still working as the root account, I used the mail command to send a message to a GMail account so I could examine the newly masqueraded headers, from-address, etc.
mail -s "Test Sendmail Masquerading" email@example.com
type in some text for the message body
type ctrl-d to finish the body, close and send
Note: As of December 2009, GMail still accepts email even if it can't resolve the sender domain, and the GMail message view has a "Show Original" option that displays the original, raw email text including headers.
The Linux aggravation meter went up a notch when I noticed that the headers in the email had NOT been masqueraded as advertised. They were all passed through in the form of firstname.lastname@example.org. The land mine I mentioned was found in the generated /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file as the following few lines:
# class E: names that should be exposed as from this host, even if we masquerade
That means the root account is excluded from the masquerading rules. This makes sense because most of the email originated using the root account would probably pertain to the specific machine and it would usually be helpful if the machine name were included in the sender header or from-address. However, the recently clamped-down email recipients's hosts simply refuse to accept such emails. The documentation does mention that the root account will always be "exposed" but I hadn't noticed that before. Grrrr.
If you're not a sendmail administration expert, it may not be that obvious how to include the root account in the masquerading. Notification emails delivered to a clamped-down email host that originate from a non-root user on the Linux machine work fine. Just to be sure this will work, enter the same mail command as another user on the machine and it does exactly what the configuration options would lead you to expect. If you want to keep the root account from being excluded from the masquerading, you need to GET RID OF a configuration option, not add another one. Elsewhere in the sendmail.mc file, there is a line that explicitly excludes root as an EXPOSED USER account:
Comment it out by changing it to:
dnl # EXPOSED_USER(`root')dnl
And remember to run m4 to regenerate the sendmail.cf file and restart the sendmail service again as described above. Now emails sent from the processes that run as the root account should also get the masquerade treatment.
The other option...
...if you have the ability to manage subdomains, and you only have one or a few machines for which you need the emails to be delivered, then you can add a subdomain to DNS for each of the machines. For instance, if you had machineabc set up in domain myregistereddomain.com, you could add a subdomain to your DNS configuration for machineabc.myregistereddomain.com. Then the clamped-down email servers would look up the sender domain for an email from email@example.com, find it, and accept the email as usual.
I'm posting this to save someone (maybe even myself) a little time later on. I searched for a while to see if I could find out why the masquerade options for sendmail were just not working but as usual, they were working, but I was experiencing the effects of the built in exception case and didn't even have a good starting point for a search that would yield an answer.